Link to enlarge Masculine head from Palenque Chiapas from photo by Michel Zabé WHO'S WHO IN THE CLASSIC MAYA WORLD
Peter Mathews
K'inich Kan B'alam II    King of Palenque (born AD 635, ruled AD 684-702)PAL 012

Complete List of Text References
TextSite: Monument: Text ReferenceDate of MonumentDate of PassageCalendar RoundJulian DateEventNamed?Portrayed?Comments
1PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  implied 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.  2.  6.  6  2  Kimi           19  Sotz'20 May 635Birth-- 1
2PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  implied 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.  2.  6.  6  2  Kimi           19  Sotz'20 May 635Birth-- 1
3COL:  Emiliano Zapata, Tablet 1:  B2 9.13.10.  1.  6 9.10.  2.  6.  6  2  Kimi           19  Sotz'20 May 635BirthY-?2
4PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  P8-Q9 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.  8.  9.  3  9  Ak'b'al           6  Xul14 Jun 641Heir designationY-
5PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  G1-H1 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.  8.  9.  3  9  Ak'b'al           6  Xul14 Jun 641Heir designation--
6PAL:  T.Cross, Tab. Cross:  K1b?-K3 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.  8.  9.  3  9  Ak'b'al           6  Xul14 Jun 641Heir designationYY3,4
7PAL:  T.Cross, Tab. Fol. Cross:  G3-G4? 9.12.18.  5.19  ? -- --Heir designationYY3,5
8PAL:  TI, Pier B:  -- -- --Portrayed as child-Y6
9PAL:  TI, Pier C:  -- -- --Portrayed as child-Y6
10PAL:  TI, Pier D:  -- -- --Portrayed as child-Y6
11PAL:  TI, Pier E:  -- -- --Portrayed as child-Y6
12PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  K1? 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.10.10.  0.  013  Ajaw           18  K'ank'in  3 Dec 642Period-ending?Y3,7
13PAL:  TI, West Tablet:  S10-T10  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY-
14PAL:  T.Cross, Tab. Cross:  N1-O1 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionYY3
15PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  L3-M3 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionYY3
16PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  O3-O4 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY-
17PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  E5 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionYY3
18PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  F4-F6 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY-
19PAL:  Palace, House E: Throne:  pN2-? 9.13.10.  6.  8  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY-
20PAL:  Palace, Palace Tablet:  L7-L9 9.14.  8.14.15  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY- 8
21PAL:  Palace, Palace Tablet:  K11-L11 9.14.  8.14.15  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY- 8
22PAL:  T.XIX Pier P1, Limestone Tab.   9.15.  2.  9.  0  ?  8  Ok                3  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684AccessionY?- 9
23PAL:  T.Sun, Right Sanctuary Panel:  D4-D7  ? 9.12.15.  7.1110  Chuwen       4  Sak  9 Sep 687Defeat of "Ruler 2" of ToninaYY10
24PAL:  T.XVII, Sanctuary Tablet:  J4-J5 9.13.  2.15.15  ? 9.12.15.  7.1110  Chuwen       4  Sak  9 Sep 687Defeat of "Ruler 2" of ToninaYY?11
25MRL:  Stela 4:  F6 9.13.  0.  0.  0  ? 9.12.18.  5.  012  Ajaw           18  Yaxk'in  4 Jul 690Supervision of foreign accessionY- 12
26PAL:  T.Sun, Tablet of the Sun:  O10-O12 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.12.18.  5.16  2  Kib'              14  Mol20 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunctionY- 13
27PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  M8-M9 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.12.18.  5.16  2  Kib'              14  Mol20 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunctionY- 13
28PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  N13 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.12.18.  5.16  2  Kib'              14  Mol20 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunctionY- 13
29PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  O17 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.12.18.  5.16  2  Kib'              14  Mol20 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunctionY- 13
30COL:  Chich'en Itza, Cenote Jade:  -- 9.13.  2.17.  7  ? 9.12.18.  5.16  2  Kib'              14  Mol20 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunction?-- 14,15,16
31PAL:  TFC, Tab. Fol. Cross:  M13-L14 9.12.18.  5.19  ? 9.12.18.  5.19  ?  5  Kawak       17  Mol23 Jul 690Planetary mass conjunctionY- 13
32PAL:  T.Cross, Alfardas:  I1-J1  5  Eb'                5  K'ayab'  7 Jan 692Temple dedicationY-
33PAL:  T.Cross, Jamb:  Ap7b-Bp7?  ?  5  Eb'                5  K'ayab'  7 Jan 692Temple dedicationY?- 17
34PAL:  TFC, Alfardas:  I1-J1  5  Eb'                5  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684Temple dedicationY-
35PAL:  TFC, Jamb:  A10b  5  Eb'                5  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684Temple dedicationY-
36PAL:  Death's Head Monument:  D2-E1 9.13.  0.  0.  0  5  Eb'                5  K'ayab'  7 Jan 684Temple dedicationY-
37TNA:  Monument p8:  A4-B4? 9.13.  7.14.  7  ? -- --Was captured a subordinateY?- 18,19
38PAL:  T.Sun, Alfardas:  J2-? 9.13.  0.  0.  0  ? 9.13.  0.  0.  0  ?  8  Ajaw             8  Woh15 Mar 692Period-endingY-
39PAL:  Group IV, Tablet of the Slaves:  B2b 9.14.18.  9.17 9.13.  0.  0.  0  8  Ajaw             8  Woh15 Mar 692Period-endingY- 20
40PAL:  Stela 1:  -- 9.13.  0.  0.  0  ? 9.13.  0.  0.  0  ?  8  Ajaw             8  Woh15 Mar 692[Period-ending]-Y21
41TNA:  Monument p49:  A8-B1 9.13.  0.13.  3  ? 9.13.  0.10.  3  3  Ak'b'al         11  Kej  4 Oct 692Star-war defeatY?- 22
42TNA:  Monument 2:  pP 9.13.  2.  9.  0  ? 9.13.  0.10.  3  ?  3  Ak'b'al         11  Kej  4 Oct 692Was captured a subordinate ?Y?- 23
43TNA:  Monument p59:  -- 9.13.  5.  0.  0 9.13.  0.10.  3  3  Ak'b'al         11  Kej  4 Oct 692Was captured a subordinate ?-?- 24
44TNA:  Monument 72:  A4-B4? 9.13.  7.14.  7  ? -- --Was captured a subordinateY?- 18,25
45COL:  Chich'en Itza, Cenote Jade:  B1 9.13.  2.17.  7  ? 9.13.  2.13.  013  Ajaw           18  K'ank'in20 Nov 694??Y- 14
46COL:  Chich'en Itza, Cenote Jade:  -- 9.13.  2.17.  7  ? 9.13.  2.17.  7  9  Manik'           0  Pop15 Feb 695??-?- 14
47PAL:  Palace, House E: Throne:  --? 9.13.10.  6.  8  ? 9.13.  7.  2.  2  9  Ik'                15  Woh  ??21 Mar 699??-?- 26
48PAL:  Palace, Palace Tablet:  -- 9.14.  8.14.15 9.13.10.  0.  0  7  Ajaw             3  Kumk'u22 Jan 702Period-ending-- 27
49PAL:  Palace, Palace Tablet:  M12-N12 9.14.  8.14.15 9.13.10.  1.  5  6  Chikchan     3  Pop16 Feb 702DeathY-
50COL:  Emiliano Zapata, Tablet 1:  implied 9.13.10.  1.  6 9.13.10.  1.  6  7  Kimi             3  Pop17 Feb 702Death--?28,29
51PAL:  T.XIV, Sanctuary Tablet:  D10-D11  0  ?  0  ?  9  Ajaw             3  K'ank'in  2 Nov 705Memorial event ?YY30
52PAL:  TI, Pier F:  A1-B2 ?? --??Y- 31
53PAL:  TI, Piers, Stucco Glyph:  Bodega 193 ?? ---Y- 31
54TNA:  Monument 65:  B3-B4 9.13.  7.14.  7  ? -- --Was captured a subordinateY?- 18,32
55TNA:  Monument 31:  A4-B4 9.13.  7.14.  7  ? -- --Was captured a subordinateY?- 18,33
56PAL:  T.XIV, Sanctuary Tablet:  Ep1-Fp1?  0  ? ?? --??Y- 34
57PAL:  T.Sun, Left Sanctuary Panel:  A4-A5? ?? ?? --??Y?Y35
58PAL:  TFC, Left Sanctuary Panel:  pA2-Bp1 --? -- --??YY
59PAL:  TFC, Right Sanct. Panel:  Ap3-Ap5? --? -- --??Y?-
60PAL:  T.Sun, Sanctuary Lintel Text:  pW-pZ ?? ?? --??YY
61PAL:  T. Cross, Left Sanct. Pan.:  F2-F4 -- -- --??YY
62PAL:  T.Cross, Sanctuary Lintel:  pU-pV --? -- --??Y-
63PAL:  TFC, Carved Stone 1:  pA-pC ?? -- --??Y- 36
64PAL:  T.XIV, Stucco head:  Bodega 370 -- -- ----Y37
65PAL:  T.XIV, Stucco head:  Bodega 371 -- -- ----Y38
66PAL:  T.XIV, Stucco head:  Bodega 372 -- -- ----Y39
  1 This text does not name K'inich Kan B'alam II, but it quite cleary refers to his birth.
  2 This is the only reference to K'inich Kan B'alam II where his name does not include the K'inich prefix.
  3 K'inich Kan B'alam II is portrayed twice in these tablets, both as a young man and as an adult king (this argument was first proposed by Karen Bassie [1991: 202-210, 218-219]).
  4 K'inich Kan B'alam II is not named with his royal name (he was still a young heir on this date), but reference to his parentage (K4-K6) leaves no doubt that the reference is to him. His name phrase (K1b?-K3) possibly includes his child name, as well as other recognisable titles he used once he was king.
  5 The date is not stated, but clearly the reference is to, the heir designation of K'inich Kan B'alam II, parallelling the structure of the Tablets of the Sun and Cross. K'inich Kan B'alam II is not named specifically, but he is referred to as the b'ah ch'ok, or 'First Prince'.
  6 These piers portray standing figures cradling a child-like figure in their arms. In each case the child is portrayed with attributes of K'awil, the personification of divinity. It has long been argued (see, for example, Schele and Mathews 1998: 99-100) that the child is none other than the future king K'inich Kan B'alam II, being publicly presented to his people (likely on the date, AD 641, when his later texts say he was officially designated as heir. On Pier B he is held by the founder of Palenque's royal line, K'uk' B'alam I, in an allegorical scene. On Piers C and D his parents Ix Sak K'uk' and K'inich Janab' Pakal I present the young prince. Finally, on Pier E K'inich Kan B'alam II is held by his earlier namesake Kan B'alam I.
  7 I believe that K'inich Kan B'alam II is referred to in this text at K1, possibly by his child name. His name is immediately followed by an abbreviated reference to his father K'inich Janab' Pakal I (who is simply called the 'Holy Palenque Lord').
  8 My interpretation of this passage in the Palace Tablet is that technically it refers to K'inich Kan B'alam II twice; hence my inclusion here of Text References 16 and 17. I paraphrase the passage (K6-L11) as follows: '[On] 8 Ok 3 K'ayab' was seated the younger brother person, the prince, the Ballplayer K'inich Kan B'alam [II]; it was the accession holy name of the Holy Palenque Lord, the Ballplayer'.
  9 The inscription of this broken monument has been brilliantly reconstructed by David Stuart. Nothing of this passage survives, but if Stuart is correct, K'inich Kan B'alam would have been named at about M2-N3 of the inscription.
  10 I have reconstructed this date on the basis of the drawing of the monument by Ignacio Armendáriz, the artist on Antonio del Río's expedition to Palenque in 1787.
  11 The standing ruler portrayed on this monument is most likely K'inich Kan B'alam II, but in view of the earlier passages in the inscription of the tablet, it could be the portrait of an earlier ruler.
  12 Simon Martin (2003:164) was the first to make the argument that this passage refers to K'inich Kan B'alam II's overseeing of the royal inauguration of the Moral ruler Muwan Jol.
  13 The identification of this event as a mass conjunction involving Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, and the Moon was first made by Floyd Lounsbury (cf. Schele and Freidel 1990:473-474).
  14 This large jade cylinder pectoral bead was one of the thousands of objects found in the Sacred Cenote at Chich'en Itza. It is incised with a recognisable portrait of K'inich Kan B'alam II, and the accompanying inscription contains three dates, one of which is the planetary mass conjunction discussed in Comment 12. The first passage names K'inich Kan B'alam II. There can be no doubt that this object originated in Palenque, but how it ended up in the Sacred Cenote is not clear.
  15 The glyphs describing the event are weathered, but other records of this same date at Palenque record a planetary mass conjunction.
  16 K'inich Kan B'alam II is not named in this passage; I include it here because of its parallel with Texts 22-25 (in all of which he is mentioned).
  17 Part of a title of K'inich Kan B'alam II is visible in what remains of glyph block Ap7b; his royal name was probably recorded in Bp7.
  18 This monument is one of six that adorned the ballcourt at Tonina. Each of the six is a composite sculpture comprising two carved stones: the torso of a captive, carved in the round and tenoned into the sidewall of the ballcourt, and a larger, rectangular panel containing the kneeling feet of the captive and a large 'shield' panel containing a text of eight hieroglyphs. No date is recorded on any of the panels, but we know from at least one other Tonina monument that the dedicatory date of the ballcourt itself was ( 7 Manik' 0 Muwan (21 Nov 699). The six captive sculptures presumably are portraits of individuals captured before this date. In fact we know from several other Tonina monuments that a series of war and capture events took place in the years leading up to the dedication of the ballcourt, and in four cases the names of captives are demonstrably the same as those on the ballcourt panels. Two individuals, Aj ??? and Chan Mas, were captured on (9 Feb 692) and (14 Mar 693), respectively. Two other individuals, named Sak B'alam and Yax Ak are known both from ballcourt panels and other Tonina monuments, but their dates of capture are unknown. In addition we know of three other individuals captured by K'inich B'aknal Chak (the contemporary king of Tonina) in the years leading up to the AD 699 ballcourt dedication. One is K'awil Mo', captured on (AD 692), and the other two were Mam ??? Ajaw and Hus, captured on (AD 696). Two of these three are the best candidates for the individuals portrayed and named on the other two ballcourt panels. The point here is that on the ballcourt panels and on some of the other Tonina monuments referring to the same individuals, the captives are described as the yajaw, 'the ajaw belonging to' and individual named only as Aj Pitzil, 'He the Ballplayer'. This is one of K'inich Kan B'alam II's favorite titles, and on the ballcourt panels it is immediately followed by the Palenque emblem glyph (B'akal Ajaw, 'Palenque lord'). This leaves almost no doubt that it is a reference to the Palenque king himself. In other words, the ballcourt captives are almost certainly subordinate nobles of K'inich Kan B'alam II, probably captured by K'inich B'aknal Chak of Tonina in reprisal for his predecessor's defeat at the hands of the Palenque king a few years earlier.
  19 The name of this captive appears to be the same as one on a panel looted from Tonina, in which the capture date is recorded as ( 12 Chikchan 18 Kumk'u (9 Feb 692). The reference to his overlord K'inich Kan B'alam II, which on the other ballcourt panels is recorded in the final two or three glyphs of the text, is broken off.
  20 K'inich Kan B'alam II is named in this brief passage with reference to his having presided over one 'tun seating', or k'atun-ending. Even though the date is not specifically recorded, it must be—the only k'atun-ending date during his reign.
  21 This monument was found in front of the Temple of the Cross. It almost certainly portrays K'inich Kan B'alam II, and the single date glyph on the stela probably records the period-ending date (AD 692).
  22 This monument records a military victory by Tonina over Palenque. The date is quite clear and there are three clauses in the explanatory passage. The first says that there was a 'star-war' against the 'tok' pakal' of 'Aj Pitzil', Palenque Ajaw'. The tok' pakal is a reference either to the sacred symbols of war of a Maya kingdom or (following a recent suggestion by David Stuart) a reference to the kingdom's army. The last two glyphs name the person who 'possessed' the Tok' Pakal. He is only referred to as 'The Ballplayer', but the fact that the Tok' Pakal was his and also the fact that the Palenque emblem glyph is attached to his name leave very little doubt that he is none other than K'inich Kan B'alam II. In this and other Tonina monuments he is referred to contemptuously by a title rather than with his formal royal name. The second passage refers to the individual capture of a person named K'awil Mo'—one of the nobles in K'inich Kan B'alam II's army. Finally, the third passage names the person responsible for the military defeat: K'inich B'aknal Chak, king of Tonina. K'awil Mo' was almost certainly one of the captives portrayed in sculptures adorning the ballcourt at Tonina (see Comment 20).
  23 Very little detail survives from Monument 2, but it appears to record the date If so, we can speculate that the accompanying passage recorded information similar to that of Texts 41 and 43.
  24 Monument p59 is a statue base, dedicated on the date It also contains the date, and says that it was the date of a capture. K'inich Kan B'alam II does not appear to be named, but given the statement in Text 43, it is likely that he was the overlord of the captive.
  25 The reference to K'inich Kan B’alam II is broken off, but in view of the other ballcourt panels he almost certainly was named in the last two glyphs of the text as the overlord of the captive lord Chan Mas. The date of the capture was not recorded on the ballcourt panel, but is known from other Tonina monuments (Monuments 84, p35, and p62) to be ( 8 K'an 7 Woh (14 Mar 693).
  26 It is not clear that K'inich Kan B'alam II is named in this passage; I include here because the previous passage records his accession and this was a date from his reign.
  27 K'inich Kan B'alam II is not named in this passage, but the date is the last period-ending date he celebrated, and it is tied in this passage to his death date 25 days later.
  28 This panel does portray a figure, but it is not clear whether it is a portrait of K'inich Kan B'alam II.
  29 This date appears to be a night event, 7 Kimi 3 Pop. The Long Count is presumably, but could be Taken literally, the statement says that K'inich Kan B'alam II died during the night of 16/17 Feb, 702.
  30 As reconstructed here, this date is a posthumous one. It is possible that the date should be 1 Calendar Round earlier, when the future king K'inich Kan B'alam II was only 18 years old.
  31 K'inich Kan B'alam II was evidently a major focus of the stucco text recorded on the two end piers (A and F) of the Temple of the Inscriptions. One occurrence of his name (Text 52) is still in situ, and at least one other example of his name survives in a glyph that had fallen from one of the piers (Text 53), to be excavated by Alberto Ruz Lhuillier in 1949. Most of this text has been lost; many of the fallen glyphs were taken by travellers over the past two centuries.
  32 This passage names the captive as Sak B'alam, and we know from Tonina Fragment 43 that he was captured on 8 Kumk'u—but the rest of the date is broken off. The date would have been in the years leading up to the dedication of the Tonina ballcourt (AD 699).
  33 The captive is named as Yax Ak, Anayte’ Ajaw. He is also named (and portrayed) on Tonina Monument p6 and Fragment 3. The date of his capture is unknown, but it would have been ca. AD 692-699.
  34 A title of K'inich Kan B'alam II is visible in the surviving text; there is no doubt that this text refers to him.
  35 This tablet is known only from drawings by Armendariz and Waldeck. There is no doubt that the figure portrayed is K'inich Kan B'alam II, but it is not clear whether he is named in the accompanying inscription.
  36 This stone was found among the rubble on the front slope of the pyramid of the Foliated Cross. It possibly comes from above the panels flanking the sanctuary doorway in the Temple of the Foliated Cross, or possibly it is part of a throne seat.
  37 This head (Schele and Mathews 1979, No. 370) is one of the most beautiful portrait heads produced by the ancient Maya—or by anyone else, for that matter. The distinctive profile of the head leaves no doubt that it is a portrait of K'inich Kan B'alam II.
  38 This stucco head (Schele and Mathews 1979, No. 371) is broken—only the lower half of the face has survived—but enough remains of the profile to enable its identification as a portrait of K'inich Kan B'alam II.
  39 This stucco head (Schele and Mathews 1979, No. 372) is also immediately recognisable as a portrait of K'inich Kan B'alam II.

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